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Gynaecological cancers

What is gynaecological cancer?

Gynaecological cancer refers to all cancer that affects the female reproductive system.

What are the different types of gynaecological cancer?

  • Cervical cancer

What is cervical cancer?

Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the neck of the womb (the cervix).

What are the symptoms of cervical cancer?

  • Bleeding between periods

  • Bleeding during and after sex

  • Bleeding after the menopause

  • Changes to your usual bleeding such as much heavy periods

  • Changes to your vaginal discharge

  • Back or abdomen pain

  • Pain during sex

  • You may also have been told you have abnormal cells from your cervical screening test. Abnormal cells do not mean you have cancer but they need to be removed incase they become cancerous.

  • Ovarian cancer


What is ovarian cancer?

Ovarian cancer is when abnormal cells in the ovary begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way. They eventually form a tumour. If not caught early, cancer cells gradually grow into the surrounding tissues. And may spread to other areas of the body.

What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?

  • Bloating

  • Lack of appetite

  • Feeling full quickly

  • Needing to urinate more often

  • Changes to your usual bowel habits

  • Indigestion

  • Back pain

  • Feeling more tired than usual

  • Post-menopausal bleeding

  • Uterine cancer (womb cancer)

What is uterine cancer (womb cancer?)​

Cancer can start in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus). They are also called womb or endometrial cancer. 

What are the symptoms of uterine cancer?

  • Change to your usual bleeding

  • Bleeding between periods

  • Post-menopausal bleeding

  • Bleeding during sex

  • Change to your usual discharge

  • A lump in your abdomen or pelvis

  • Pain during sex

  • Blood in your urine

  • Pain in your lower back or pelvis

  • Vaginal cancer

What is vaginal cancer?


Vaginal cancer is rare. It starts in the vagina, which is the passage that leads from the vulva to the cervix. Vaginal cancer is more common as you age.

What are the symptoms of vaginal cancer?

  • A lump in the vagina

  • Skin changes in the vagina

  • Bleeding after sex

  • Post-menopausal bleeding

  • Bleeding between periods

  • Itchy vagina

  • Pain when urinating

  • Changes to your discharge

  • Vulva cancer


What is vulva cancer?​

Vulval cancer is rare. It can start in any part of the vulva including the labia, clitoris and bartholin glands.

What are the symptoms of vulva cancer?

  • Pain and soreness on the vulva

  • Itchy vulva

  • A lump or sore on the vulva

  • Bleeding from the vulva

  • Blood stained discharge

  • Pain when urinating

  • A mole on the vulva that has changed appearance


What other types of cancer can affect the vulva?

Other forms of cancer that can affect the vulva include skin cancer or Paget disease.


It is important to note that the symptoms of gynaecological cancers can also be symptoms of other benign women's health conditions, such as fibroids and endometriosis.


It is best to see a professional Gynaecologist Consultant to rule out anything serious and treat the cause of your symptoms.

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