Gynaecological cancers

Gynaecological cancer refers to all cancer that affects the female reproductive system.

Cervical cancer


Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the neck of the womb (the cervix).


Symptoms to look out for include:

  • Bleeding between periods

  • Bleeding during and after sex

  • Bleeding after the menopause

  • Changes to your usual bleeding such as much heavy periods

  • Changes to your vaginal discharge

  • Back or abdomen pain

  • Pain during sex

  • You may also have been told you have abnormal cells from your cervical screening test. Abnormal cells do not mean you have cancer but they need to be removed incase they become cancerous.

Ovarian cancer


Ovarian cancer is when abnormal cells in the ovary begin to grow and divide in an uncontrolled way. They eventually form a tumour. If not caught early, cancer cells gradually grow into the surrounding tissues. And may spread to other areas of the body.

Symptoms to be aware of are:

  • Bloating

  • Lack of appetite

  • Feeling full quickly

  • Needing to urinate more often

  • Changes to your usual bowel habits

  • Indigestion

  • Back pain

  • Feeling more tired than usual

  • Post-menopausal bleeding

Uterine cancer (womb cancer)


Cancer can start in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus). They are also called womb or endometrial cancer. 

Symptoms to be aware of are:

  • Change to your usual bleeding

  • Bleeding between periods

  • Post-menopausal bleeding

  • Bleeding during sex

  • Change to your usual discharge

  • A lump in your abdomen or pelvis

  • Pain during sex

  • Blood in your urine

  • Pain in your lower back or pelvis

Vaginal cancer


Vaginal cancer is rare. It starts in the vagina, which is the passage that leads from the vulva to the cervix. Vaginal cancer is more common as you age.

Symptoms to be aware of are:

  • A lump in the vagina

  • Skin changes in the vagina

  • Bleeding after sex

  • Post-menopausal bleeding

  • Bleeding between periods

  • Itchy vagina

  • Pain when urinating

  • Changes to your discharge

Vulva cancer

Vulval cancer is rare. It can start in any part of the vulva including the labia, clitoris and bartholin glands.

Symptoms to be aware of are:

  • Pain and soreness on the vulva

  • Itchy vulva

  • A lump or sore on the vulva

  • Bleeding from the vulva

  • Blood stained discharge

  • Pain when urinating

  • A mole on the vulva that has changed appearance


Other forms of cancer that can affect the vulva include skin cancer or Paget disease.


It is important to note that the symptoms of gynaecological cancers can also be symptoms for other benign women's health conditions, such as fibroids and endometriosis. It is best to see a professional Gynaecologist Consultant to rule out anything serious and treat the cause of your symptoms.